OK, here it is. Mindful Living in 2015. Are we just trying to be trendy and yogic, or do we mean something by this? Why Mindful Living? It is basically just a name that we’ve given to an idea. A thing that we want to do. An inspiration and a conversation that began on a hike one cold, fall-colored day in November. In 2015, we want to reflect, remember, communicate and encourage each other in living our healthiest and happiest lives. Although, it’s an easy and agreeable concept, intentional/mindful living doesn’t just happen on it’s own. It is a discipline just like our yoga. It’s about habits. It’s about feeling good in our own skin. It’s about being our authentic selves, having full hearts, and giving back to others. It’s about community. Helping each other grow. One day at a time. One minute at a time.  One breath at a time.

Mindfulness and Yoga go together pretty intrinsically.  The two have a similar focus on the mind-body connection. Noticing our feelings, sensations and alignments while they are happening. Being in the present moment. Practicing with integrity to avoid injury in yoga is the same as living with integrity to avoid negative consequences in life.  Being mindful about what is happening in our bodies, minds and lives can come with yoga, as we take time away from work, family, technology, busy-ness to take care of ourselves. To focus. To find peace and calm. To let go of attachments that do us more harm than good. To truly rest. Yoga can help but it’s not the only thing we want to do in Mindful Living for 2015.

We want to practice yoga. That’s a given. It is our joy and our lifestyle. But we also want to challenge and nourish our bodies in other ways. We will talk about these ideas in upcoming posts so stay tuned! Not only are we setting intentions for healthy physical bodies but we are also setting intentions for our mental and spiritual bodies. We want to check in and make sure that we are feeding our minds, hearts and souls, so that we are more capable of being authentic and kind to those around us. We will touch on all of this more throughout the year. For now, we will start with some more specific ideas for intentions in 2015. We want you to add yours to the list.

  • Sing with friends
  • Practice banjo 5 times/week
  • Smile at a stranger each day
  • Stop eating after dinner or after 7 pm
  • Eat only 2 squares of chocolate instead of the whole bar
  • Try a new sport, exercise or class
  • Walk instead of drive to work at least once a week
  • Practice yoga 5 times/week
  • Run with friends 3 times/week
  • Eat raw, whole foods 2 out of 3 meals per day
  • Eat French fries once/week
  • Read a book about yoga
  • Pray every day
  • Do the splits
  • Do a headstand
  • Start a community group
  • Write this blog at least once/week for all of 2015

All of these intentions, and yours added, might seem overwhelming but here’s the good news. We don’t have to do it all at once. Changes that are drastic often times don’t stick. We will take it little by little and arrive at our destination gradually, and if we fall off the path, we will simply get back on it. For the first week of January, maybe pick 3 to 5 intentions and try it out. See how it affects your life after one week and the lives of those around you. Then let us know!

This is, most basically, a conversation. A continuing discussion. We imagine there will be many vehicles to communicate our intentions and encourage each other in 2015, including but not limited to: blog posts, special classes, workshops, challenges, guest writers, book clubs, events, and Instagram photos (#mindfulliving). We welcome your ideas and involvement! After all, our inspiration is you, this community and seeing what happens in Nashville when we help each other live fully.


My friend who I was pregnant with (she still is), bought me a yoga package for Christmas with the idea that we’d take prenatal up until our due date. I was familiar with hot yoga but had never practiced any other style, and to be honest, I was a little worried I wouldn’t like it and was pleasantly surprised when I did! Each week challenged me and helped me refocus and relax—both of which are luxuries I are hard to find during the emotional moments in pregnancy. I looked forward to every Saturday because not only was it beneficial to me & baby, but I loved getting to see the other mommas each week and hear about how their pregnancies were going!

My last class was my 36th week. I knew I was close to being full term and labor was much more of a reality than a far off idea of something that will happen one day. I was honestly getting a bit nervous. During the class we practiced some of the poses we’ve done almost every week but I practiced them differently, really trying to remember each one, focusing on my breathing and practicing sending my breath to where I needed it most.

The Monday following the class was when I started pre-labor contractions; they weren’t intense enough to make me stop what I was doing, but I was fully aware that they were, in fact, contractions. By Tuesday night, I was having intense contractions, and during each one, I applied the Ujjayi breathing I had learned. I’d count the number of breaths in and attempt to have the same number out. This helped me stay relaxed (as much as possible) and in control, not letting the contractions get away from me. Throughout labor and delivery I squatted often (my least favorite pose during class – ha!) which helped relieve some of the back labor I was having and once it got to the pushing phase I squatted almost the entire time.

I had known prenatal yoga has plenty of benefits for pregnancy and labor, but experiencing the benefits was amazing. I know taking these classes played a huge role in me being able to keep my all-natural birth plan and I will definitely take it again for the next pregnancy!

My beautiful baby boy, Harper James Falcon, was born Wednesday April 16th— 5lbs 14oz and 18.75in long.


I have to admit, I was skeptical. I thought I knew the kind of people that were really into yoga, and that kind of person is not me. They talk about energy and chi and buy granola in bulk. They listen to “world music” and quit their job to spend a summer in Thailand because, why not? There is nothing wrong with that type of person, but that’s not me. What could I get out of hot yoga?
I work as a computer analyst. Like so many other IT folks, years of constant typing and mouse movements in tiny cubicles have taken their toll. Specifically, I developed ulna tunnel syndrome in my left hand, which caused numbness and nerve pain in my wrist and hand during many activities. I went to a doctor about my issues, and was told to avoid motions that caused pain (Thanks, Groucho Marx). He also said that if the pain continued, he could perform surgery to alleviate the pressure on my ulna nerve. I went ahead and nope’d on out the door and never came back.
A few months later, I started to develop carpal tunnel syndrome in my right hand. Combined with the already existing ulna issues, it all was terribly painful and made sitting at my desk for any length of time pretty agonizing. I had my company buy the super-ridiculous ergonomic keyboard and mouse combination months back, but it really didn’t help all that much aside from making my desk look like the console of a spaceship.
Along with the repetitive stress injuries, I had also devolved into a sedentary lifestyle. This was fine in my twenties, back when I could consume an entire extra-large pizza and a case of dirt-cheap beer in a weekend and not gain an ounce of weight. However, at 30, that ridiculous metabolism decided to pull anchor; I started to develop quite the set of man boobs (read: moobs) and was working on a pretty sweet beer gut.
I was discussing my issues with a friend that was into hot yoga and she explained that there are postures specifically designed to target the wrists and arms to help and prevent ailments such as carpal tunnel. She said nothing about any moob reducing postures.
“Is there chanting,” I asked. “I don’t chant.”
“What? No,” my friend replied. “I don’t know what you think hot yoga is about, but you obviously have no clue.”
She was correct. After some convincing, she brought me out to your studio and I dropped $20 on ten classes. Within three sessions, the numb area on my left hand started to tingle for a few hours after each class. By my tenth class, the numbness was almost completely gone. Also, the carpal tunnel in my right hand had begun to noticeably subside.
Fast-forward four months later and the carpal and ulna tunnel issues are pretty much non-existent. Also, the moobs can no longer be classified as moobs and the gut has begun the long road to becoming abs. Aside from the physical improvements, I have also experienced mental benefits. I am able to focus at work for longer periods of time and situations which used to stress me out don’t seem nearly as taxing (I-40 during rush hour might still illicit three to five expletives, however).
An unexpected benefit from yoga is the much-needed disconnect I receive just by going. As a salaried employee, work is always a smartphone jiggle away and something that is constantly on my mind. During yoga, my phone can be vibrating away in the locker room and I would have no clue. At first this was maddening, but I have eventually been able to accept it and actually enjoy my time away from it. This was merely the first step. After a short while, I started to block out more and more of life’s little nuisances. The annoying director at work? Gone. School debt due? What’s school? Aliens could land on the White House lawn and I would have no idea until after kapalabhati breathing, and that’s just the way I like it. I’ve actually started craving yoga just to escape it all.
After seeing the impact that hot yoga has had on my life in such a small amount of time, I decided to sign up for a year’s worth of sessions. I continue to see improvements in myself and also recognize that I have a long way to go. Thank you, Hot Yoga of East Nashville. You’ve won a loyal customer and an avid promoter of the benefits that hot yoga can offer.


bikram yoga girl


Many people ask this question. It is common to overhear this sentiment in the yoga studio changing room, “I just don’t like the 90 minute classes. It’s too much. I can’t fit it in. I’m just a beginner, etc.” This is a normal conclusion, considering that most magazines prescribe 30 to 60 minutes of exercise per day and considering our fast-paced society of fast food, 22-minute sitcoms, and the 2-minute song, but we believe that the 90-minute class with the same 26 postures is more gripping than the latest Breaking Bad episode and will hold your attention more fully than the 20-minute Cross Fit Workout Of the Day. While it is always the same postures, every day is different. Every day brings you a new challenge and a new opportunity to grow, and we believe it is worth every minute of it.

The 26 posture series follows the tradition of  “the Beginners Class” that was developed by Bikram Choudhury, an Indian yoga master, to work all the systems of the body systematically. Years of thought and practice have gone into this series. It is tried and true for over 40 years, and it is designed to be completed in a 90-minute class. The series includes two sets of most every posture – giving you two chances to practice the posture and two opportunities for your body to open to the posture. Without a doubt, the second set of the postures is typically your “destination set” – the deeper set in which the body is more open to the posture, and your muscles and mind have retained memory of the posture from the first set which will aid in performing the posture during second round, helping you to master the posture. It is still possible to achieve this in the 60-minute class, as some postures are practiced twice, but you do not get as much rest between postures, which is another important part. We consider 60-minute classes to be more of a maintenance class to maintain your practice when schedules do not allow for 90 minutes of practice.

Perhaps the most important reason for 90 minutes is the chance for internal struggle and therefore, possibility for refinement. When you enter the room for a 90 minute class, you must choose over and over to remain. To remain in the hot room for the full 90 minutes. That, in and of itself, may be the most significant challenge. Lying in savasana wanting some ease, some air, some water, some relief can be the hardest yoga that is done in the room. When you stay in the room for 90 minutes, you have conquered a real and significant challenge. You learn the most important lesson that is to be learned – that you are stronger than you thought. When you stay in the room for 90 minutes, even if you are laying down half of the class, you have at some point faced yourself, your fears, your weaknesses and you have used your mental focus and determination to put those thoughts, perceptions, or physical feelings aside and you conquer. It may not be a transcendent feeling. It may feel more like giving up. A surrender to the heat and struggle. But either way, you have accomplished what you set out to do. You challenge your body and mind, through a 600- to 1,200-calorie effort, you stretch yourself to the limit, you grow stronger – inside and out.


Jessica photo

This studio, you, have made such a positive change in my life that I can barely describe in words. I am recovering emotionally and spiritually from 7 failed IVF attempts all ending in miscarriage. I gained 44 lbs due to steroids and hormones through that process. I also lost my sense of self. I felt emotionally and physically barren.

I have tried therapy to work on the grief. I have lamented at the sight of myself in the mirror, mourning my mountain climber and hiker body. This yoga has been my answer.

I find myself smiling more. I find that old swing in my hip when I walk. I find some peace and center. Most of all, my body does not feel barren . I am fully fertile, growing and developing every day of practice. My body is mine again.

You all are doing an amazing job of cheering us on, nurturing us and keeping us coming back!


This past Monday I completed my thirtieth straight day of hot yoga (a mixture of bikram and heated vinyasa). I initially planned to write this blog post that afternoon, but I waited. At first, I was too busy, but then I wanted to think–to contemplate what I had done, what it meant, where I go from here.

I’ve been practicing yoga since February–which is to say I’m still a bit of a newb. And while I have changed since I’ve begun my practice, those changes didn’t really set in until after the 30 days. What’s changed? My body, of course, but it’s so much more than that.
I’m generally an anxious person. I have an anxiety disorder, and I also suffer from PTSD. Practicing yoga daily has not only helped me manage my anxiety, but it’s helped me recognize it and see it for what it is. In doing that, I’ve been able to acknowledge anxiety-induced self deprecation and move on.

That’s huge.

The largest thing I’ve learned over the past thirty days is self acceptance. Every day is different. Every day I’m different. Being on the mat has helped me come to terms with that. Some days I can hold a standing bow for a full minute. Other days I’m on my back, laid out, unable to even make it through the warm up. And that’s okay. It’s good to acknowledge what my body can and can’t do. The important thing is that I’m there. I’m on my mat. I’m enduring the heat. I’m practicing. I’m not giving up.

It’s discipline. It’s endurance. It’s daily.

Where do I go from here? The obvious answer is that I continue my practice. But I don’t want to stop there. These things that I’ve learned, the intentions I’ve set, the patience I’ve gained, they can go beyond the studio. No. They should go beyond the studio.

My next goal? To apply them to my writing. To accept when my writing sucks. To work through that. To acknowledge it and have gratitude toward myself for trying. To celebrate the days the words flow and I can’t seem to put a cap on my creativity. But most importantly: to practice.

I need writing to be daily (or at least as close to daily as possible) like yoga is. I need it to be a practice, a discipline, a constant. And I need to give myself grace.

Thank you Hot Yoga East Nashville for giving me a space to learn these lessons–on and off the mat.



I have started to receive feedback from students, many of whom have already begun to see the positive changes, even profound effects, in their bodies and their lives after a month or two of steady practice. I can’t describe how deeply touched I am at receiving this kind of feedback! This one stopped me dead in my tracks during the blur of another busy day and reminded me of why I’m doing what I’m doing – why I left my life and career in Seattle, why I believe in yoga, and why I believe in Nashville! Upon receiving the following email, I forced my 3 roommates (all dudes) to stop what they were doing and listen to me read it aloud with a little quiver in my lip and catch in my voice. 🙂

Dear Brooke,

Thank you for all of the shout-outs in class the other morning! I think I am starting to get the hang of things. After spending 6 years on and off hormones, trying to have a baby, and 70 lbs of weight gain, I had lost sight of the person I was…person I am. I was an avid runner and was in incredible shape mentally and physically. I have run 5 marathons, countless 1/2 marathons and races of every distance in between. I was thin…and being thin matters to me. It matters because that’s when I feel my best, look my best, am the best wife, sleep my best, eat my best, AM my best. I want be my very best for my beautiful new daughter. I want to give her a healthy image to look up to. I want to be the best I can be…I know I can’t be my best, overweight.

So, with that said, I know how to set goals and achieve them. However, until hot yoga, I wasn’t so sure I could ever set another fitness goal, much less achieve one. I tried running again…my giant milk-filled boobs stopped me dead in my tracks at, oh, about a 1/2 a block. I was devastated. I am a runner. My new body wouldn’t let me run? WTF? I was lost. Fat. Defeated. I looked like a joke in my running gear anyway, so why bother…at least, that’s what I told myself. So, I walked to Sweet 16th Bakery and grabbed a Danish…a delicious Danish! I felt better. Not really.

A few days later I “liked” your FB page and began googling “hot yoga” to see what it was all about. Remember, I am a runner. Runners don’t bend. Yoga was SOOOO foreign to me! After a few days of trying to talk myself out of it – mainly, because I thought I would look like a joke in yoga gear. I emailed you and soon went to my first class. I am so thankful for your encouraging words in those emails. They got me through the door. Better yet, your 6 am class made me sign on for a year! I have sweat off 7 lbs of, fat, stress, and defeat onto the floor of your studio. I am planning on shedding 42 more…in my favorite little corner of the yoga room.



I’ve been here about 3 months now. On occasion, I have been asked, “what do you think of the yoga community in Nashville as compared to Seattle?”  Realizing that I had, in fact, made some observations, judgments, and comparisons between the two, I had not yet articulated them until one particular day when I was asked that question at a meeting of several established, local yoga studio owners and teachers. Talk about being put on the spot! Here I was, new to town, and having just opened my first studio. I was already wondering what they thought of me – I felt a hint of insecurity about being the new girl in town, new to owning a studio, and new to this yoga community but I quickly put those notions aside (yoga mentality!) and gave them the most honest answer that I could. For better or worse, I blurted out a few of the things that I had noticed. I will share and expand on those thoughts below.

1)      Yoga: Old News in Seattle; All the Rage in Nashville      

The very first thing I noticed is that yoga is HUGE in Nashville! Way bigger than I even knew when I committed to opening a studio here. It’s all happening! Right now! At least, that’s what it feels like to me. I’m sure it has been growing to this point for some time but it feels like yoga in Nashville is in its prime. People know about it, and they are interested in it, and they are willing to try it. It feels like yoga still holds a bit of mystery to Nashvillians but that it feels so accessible and approachable, such that even the manliest man will give it a whirl. 🙂 In contrast, Seattle sees yoga as commonplace. Been there, done that. “Oh yeah, yoga? I used to do that a couple years ago.” It’s already on every corner, just like Starbucks. It’s an institution of Seattle but it’s definitely not that intriguing. People who haven’t tried it, are not very interested in trying it. They’ve walked by that studio on the corner for the last 5 years, and never looked inside. Yoga feels like it is still up-and-coming in Nashville, although it has definitely made waves already. The most exciting aspect is that it still has so much more room to grow and so many people to lure in. Kinda like East Nashville, hmmmm….

2)      A Devoted Practice: Do You Have It?

While Nashvillians take the lead with enthusiasm and open-mindedness, Seattle yogis seem to have stronger dedication to their practice and loyalty to their home studio. One huge difference that I’ve been shocked to find between Nashville yogis and Seattle yogis is that many Nashville yogis hop around from one studio to another; from one style of yoga to another; or worse, from a steady yoga practice to a nonexistent yoga practice. Again, this may stem from history of yoga in Seattle vs. that of Nashville. I taught and practiced with students who had been practicing for up to 15 to 25 years without intermission. I was a beginner with just 7 years of practice under my belt. Seattle yogis typically stick to one (maybe two) types of yoga and are in the studio 5 or 6 days a week. More interestingly, they practice at the same studio each and every day. Seattleites walk to yoga, bike to yoga, bus to yoga or drive to yoga but they would never dream of leaving their home studio to drive across town in order to get a Groupon deal at another studio. Unfortunately, I see Nashvillians wasting gas, money, time and energy driving all over tarnation just to “save” a buck. Not only is this harmful to the studios (making us compete against one another unnecessarily) but it is also harmful to one’s practice. I can see how driving across town to take a different type of class every couple of weeks could be renewing and revitalizing to your practice but driving across town in traffic every day is simply not sustainable.

Moreover, inconsistent/intermittent practice or studio hopping interrupts one’s practice and the community that should be developing within a studio. Yoga studios offer the student something to be a part of and lifelong friendships to be found.  As a teacher, you want to see your student grow, change and learn. We are all forming new friendships at the studio, and it is exciting to see students making improvements mentally and physically in their practice! I can only hope that I get to continue to watch my students grow and practice with them for years to come! Certainly, yoga is not cheap, and I am sensitive to that but I truly believe that everybody who wants to do yoga can either work trade for it or find a way to fit it into their budget. At Hot Yoga of East Nashville, unlimited yoga can be purchased for the cost of a cup of coffee per day or the cost of going out 2 or 3 nights per month. Let something go? Let yoga in. Commit to a dedicated practice, and yoga will change your life. Seems like a fair trade to me.  🙂

Seattle Yoga and Nashville Yoga Collide

What would happen if the enthusiasm and intention of Nashville yogis met the dedication and steadfast determination of Seattle yogis? A yoga revolution, maybe? I would love to see more Nashvillian yogis take the chance to change from the inside out! Yoga is truly the fountain of youth but it must be practiced regularly – 4 to 5 times per week. Nashville needs yoga and yoga needs Nashville. Nashvillians need yoga to restore and strengthen their bodies and minds and help them to feel and be their best selves. Yoga will give Nashvillians the energy, focus and passion to BE and GIVE 100% to their music, their friends, their families and their community. Since Nashville is the IT place to be, and Nashville loves yoga, we can make yoga cool!! Bring it into focus for everyone to see and want to be part of – the revolution that improves health, happiness, and the world! Yoga for Everybody!


The road to the Fluffo Building was not straight or flat. There were ups and downs and major bends that I could not see around. My patience was tested but my determination was strengthened beyond what I knew I possessed. I had been looking for a space since July. Very few options were out there and even fewer were even feasible for a yoga studio. Needless to say, I hadn’t found the right fit until November. I had an appointment to see “the Fluffo Building,” a space that my Realtor (who we’ll call R-1) was excited about and had arranged an appointment with the Realtor (R-2) representing the building owners. In typical Nashville form, I happened to sit next to Realtor #2 at the Family Wash one night while I was literally wandering the streets all alone and killing time until it was time to go to sleep. I overheard his conversation about businesses and buildings and butted right in. I was just curious what he did for a living. I found out that he was a realtor, so I mentioned that I had an appointment to view a building in a couple of days. He didn’t let on that he knew what I was talking about at first but then slyly indicated that HE was in fact the representing realtor. It turned out that my appointment would not have worked out and I would have never gotten to see Fluffo except for the fact that I had run into R-2 on that very night and butted into his conversation.

And so I saw the space the following morning, and it was THE ONE! I was immediately interested….. more like had to have it. I thought it would be as simple as that but 2 months after that day, I was still trying to sign a lease and felt like I was spinning my wheels trying to make something happen from across the country. Each passing day was literally excruciating as I waited and waited to receive a lease agreement in my inbox. Finally, I decided that I would have to take care of it in person. I booked myself a flight to Nashville to try to meet with the owners of the building. I had no appointment or guarantee that my trip would be profitable but I boarded that plane in faith. Once I arrived in Nashville, I was able to get an appointment to meet the owner’s of the building to discuss the possible lease. The meeting and the trip turned out to be worthwhile beyond expectation! After a round or two rapid-fire questioning (from the owners) of my plans and abilities to make this dream happen, I was finally able to convince them that I could do it. I understood where they were coming from – they were looking out for themselves and me. They didn’t want me to start something that I could not finish and just lose money. After a couple rounds of Fat Bottom beers, and discussions on that what’s, when’s, and how’s, it came down to a good old-fashioned handshake! Just what I would expect from Nashville, and just what I flew down there to get.

It also helped immensely that the one owner’s wife did hot yoga and was in full support of the business. As the owner later told me, he runs every potential business/tenant past his wife, and if she doesn’t like it, it doesn’t make the cut because “if the women don’t like a business, than it won’t succeed.” Well, it makes sense to me, and it worked in my favor.

And here we are today, about halfway through construction in my dream space – the Fluffo building. These are the walls. Soon we’ll be there practicing our Half Moon Pose, taking Savasanas, and making more friends over Fat Bottom beers and kombucha.


In the words of Alan Jackson, “I’ve gone country!” or I’ve gone yogi.  Actually, a little of both.  One way or another, this Seattle girl is movin’ to Nashville to be around my most favorite music and to spend more time “on my mat,” as they say in yoga.  I’m coming to open a yoga studio, and it’s gonna be HOT, the yoga studio, that is.  I’m nearing the end of my 200-Hour Teacher Certification training, which has taken place in Nashville.  Now I’ve decided that I’ll go ahead and open a studio to offer Bikram-style hot yoga classes, as well as Vinyasa Flow.  We’ll get into why everyone should do more yoga and all the amazing benefits of hot yoga at a later date.  This here blog entry is about how I got here.

It all started about 2 years ago, the very first time I came to Nashville.  The moment I stepped onto Broadway and into my first Nashville Honky Tonk, it was love at first sight.  It was 11 on a Sunday morning, and I was looking to kill some time.  Thinking there wouldn’t be any  Honky Tonks open so early on a Sunday, I was pleasantly surprised to hear music coming from every bar on the strip, and found that one after another, each bar was filled of the best musicians I had ever heard!  So I guess that was the start of the dream, and every visit to Nashville since then has been filled with so much great music and inspiring musicians that it makes my heart want to explode a little but also made me want to be part of it.  It felt like home even before I realized what that feeling was, and most significantly, everyone welcomed me with open arms.  It seems like everywhere I go in Nashville, I meet the friendliest people, and every encounter seems to be pre-destined.  But my story is not all that unique.  Everyone in Nashville seems to have a story like this.  This great city has wooed every one of us and drawn us to be with her.

It wasn’t the hardest decision I’ve ever made It might just be the hardest decision I’ve ever made.  It took a bit of courage to think I could do it and even more to tell other people that I was going to do it.  There is a lot that I’m leaving behind but I guess the point is that I’m not leaving anything behind that I can’t come back to or keep in my heart in the meantime.  As many people have told me along the way, “nothing worthwhile is easy.”

It came down to this: I HAVE to do it.  East Nashville needs a Hot Yoga studio, and I’m excited to take this chance.  Owning a yoga studio has been a dream for years, and this is the perfect time to do it.  When I consulted my most wise friend about this crazy Nashville yoga idea, I complained to her that it was very risky and scary.  She simply said, “If anyone can do it, it’s you.”  I didn’t argue with her or feign modesty. I knew she was right.  So here I am.  Maybe it wasn’t by choice at all.  It’s undeniable, I believe in Nashville.